Reports from the Interreg IV project QUADRUPLE HELIX CENTRAL BALTIC

Quadruple Helix reports

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:7 (swedish)

Quadruple Helix som metod för att främja kvinnors företagande

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:6

Documentaion of Study visits within the Quadruple project and
Benchlearning report

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:5

Empowering women’s entrepreneurship – to establish bottom-up innovation systems. The case of cycling tourism in Norrtälje region.

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:4

Dissemination conference 29-30 August 2011, Kärdla, Hiiumaa

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:3

A Gender Equal Cluster initiative – practical experiences from the Quadruple Helix project.

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:2

Bridging the gender gap in entrepreneurship through NGO’s. A study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region

Quadruple Helix reports 2011:1

A Study of the Conditions for Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Estonian Entrepreneurial Environment

Quadruple Helix reports 2010:6

A framework for the integration of a gender perspecitve in cross-border entrepreneurship and cluster promotion programmes.

Quadruple Helix reports 2010:5

The gender and entrepreneurship gap in Estonia, Finland and Sweden

Quadruple Helix reports 2010:4

The role of NGOs in supporting women’s entrepreneurship. A study of a Quadruple Helix project in the Baltic sea region.

Quadruple Helix reports 2010:3

Notions of gender in contextual interviews. Workpackage report.

Quadruple Helix reports 2010:2

Cluster promotion and mobile services for the tourism industry.
Seminar report.

Quadruple Helix reports 2010:1

Women, Innovation, Social networking. Search conference report.

A Study of the Conditions for Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Estonian Entrepreneurial Environment

Report from the Quadruple Helix Central Baltic project of the Central Baltic Interreg IV A Programme


Anneli Kikkas
OÜ Viirekaare
© Saaremaa University Centre

1. Introduction

This study was carried out on the order of the Saaremaa University Centre in the framework of the Quadruple Helix project of the Central Baltic Interreg IV A programme the aim of which is to develop and strengthen the Baltic Sea region, stimulating clusters of the tourism sector and developing innovative support measures in the mobile telephony of the tourism sector and social networking among female entrepreneurs.

The lead partner of the Quadruple Helix project is the Municipality of Norrtälje (Sweden), other partners are: Stockholm County Administrative Board (Sweden), BalticFem (Sweden), Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden), Åbo Akademi University (Finland), Eurohouse (Estonia), Läänemaa Tourism Association (Estonia).

The aim of this study is to analyse conditions for women’s entrepreneurship in the Estonian entrepreneurial environment. Nowadays we hear more and more often about gender inequality and discrimination, especially against women, which is why this study is focused on the conditions for women’s entrepreneurship.

Also, this study forms a basis for developing and completing the Quadruple Helix innovation model that the project partner Royal Institute of Technology from Sweden is in charge of. This will be developed on the basis of data collected from studies in three countries: Estonia (this report), Finland (Levin, 2010) and Sweden (Skoglund, 2011). The main platform for compiling the model is the initiation of collaborative networks and cluster processes between four sectors: public sector, private sector, academic sector and civil society or the so-called third sector.

The study uses qualitative methods with focus on oral interviews with female entrepreneurs. Altogether 23 women were interviewed and the interviews were carried out all over Estonia. Additionally, data from the Statistical Office, results from studies carried out by the Ministry of Social Affairs, and other various studies that have explored women’s entrepreneurship in Estonia.

Download and read the report: 
 qh-report-2011-1-isbn.pdf?media=1655374534 1.85 Mb

The role of NGOs in supporting women’s entrepreneurship

A study of a Quadruple Helix project in the Baltic sea region


Malin Lindberg
Luleå University of Technology
Dept of Human Work Science

Monica Lindgren
Johann Packendorff
KTH – Royal Institute of Technology
School of Industrial Engineering and Management

1. Introduction

Since long, entrepreneurial activity and innovation have been seen as an indispensable factor behind societal development and prosperity. Almost all political parties agree upon the necessity of increased entrepreneurial venturing in society – placing the future in the hands of thrifty entrepreneurs rather than relying upon corporate managers and public sector leaders to deliver growth, innovation, jobs and prosperity. At the same time, research has repeatedly shown that entrepreneurial activity is not open for everyone. From a gender perspective we can see a clear ’gender gap’ across Europe – often portrayed as a statistical pattern showing differences in prevalence of entrepreneurial activities between the categories of men and women. The reasons for the gender gap can be traced back to the general cultural gender differences in society, where business start-up:s is culturally defined as masculine activities. Moreover, the expectations on entrepreneurship and innovation from policymakers are emphasizing high-tech, high-growth, individualist ventures – i.e. traditional masculine ways of ’doing entrepreneurship’. Behind the statistical gender gap in entrepreneurship, there is thus a cultural gender gap.

This cultural gender gap of entrepreneurship has also found its way into societal models for supporting entrepreneurship and innovation. During the last decade, the role of collaboration between different sectors of society in supporting and catalyzing entrepreneurship and innovation has been emphasized through the introduction of the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff 2000), in which successful entrepreneurial activities are seen as dependent upon the effective interplay between private businesses, governmental agencies and the university sector. At the same time as this model is increasingly used as a core tool in supporting entrepreneurship and innovation in several Western countries, there is also research indicating that the ’gender gap’ has not been alleviated and that Triple Helix innovation systems tend to emphasise and sustain traditional masculine notions of entrepreneurship (cf Lindberg, 2010). In recent research, an extension of the model into a Quadruple Helix model – including also Non-Governmental Organizations – has been proposed to overcome this problem (ref). In this paper, we will inquire into the role of NGOs in supporting women’s entrepreneurship in Sweden, Finland and Estonia. By doing that, we intend to complement the theoretical Quadruple Helix model with empirical patterns, and add to the knowledge on NGOs in relation to women’s entrepreneurship.

Download and read the report:
QH-report-2010-4.pdf 1.14 Mb


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